Psychedelic drugs such as LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin and ketamine have been rediscovered by researchers in neuroscience and psychiatry. A recent review in the Journal of Psychopharmacology highlights the distinct therapeutic effects of psychedelics, as well as the current re-evaluation of their use in the treatment of addiction, anxiety in terminally ill patients, depression, cluster headaches and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).A psychedelic drug is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception. Since the discovery of LSD in 1943, psychedelic drugs have been of major scientific interest. Despite clinical psychedelic research coming to a standstill in the mid-1970s (due to regulatory restrictions), an increase in methodological quality standards, neurobiological method and neuroimaging, as well as interest in the interest of the neurosciences in subjective experience, has meant a re-emergence of interest.The review by Tomislav Majić (Charité University Medicine, Berlin), Timo Schmidt (Free University Berlin) and Jürgen Gallinat (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), looked at current clinical research and re-evaluated former and recent concepts of where and how psychedelic substances exert their therapeutic effects. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email Pinterest LinkedIn Share Key findings included that ketamine is effective in the treatment of substance addiction, both through the psychedelic experiences and it’s enhancing of personal meaning and spiritual significance. Ketamine has also been used to produce short-term anti-depressive effects in major depression and bipolar disorder, through its altering of perception (It has also been proposed as a treatment option for affective disorders based on its pharmacological effects).LSD has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol abuse when used in combination with therapy.Psilocybin, the main component of so-called magic mushrooms, has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety in cancer patients, not by reducing pain, but by inducing feelings of strengthened rapport and relationships with close relatives and friends. Recent research has also highlighted the therapeutic use of LSD and psilocybin in treating cluster headaches. Interestingly, it was reported that the therapeutic effects appear to be completely independent of the psychedelic experience.The review reported converging evidence suggesting that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the mechanism of these psychedelic drugs – the neurotransmitter serotonin is thought to play an important role in the brain relating to mood, anxiety and happiness.The findings of the review concluded that psychedelic drugs are unique in the sense that they: have neurochemical and pharmacodynamics effects (e.g. in the treatment of depression and possibly OCD); support various types of psychotherapy (e.g. in the treatment of terminal illness); can be used to treat headaches or other pain syndromes; and they often result in spiritual experiences through which they can assist in therapy (e.g. in the treatment of substance addiction). Furthermore, in contrast to traditional psychiatric drugs, they are only to be taken once or a few times.The review highlights the potential for psychedelic drugs to be used in clinical settings, although more research is required to develop a deeper understanding of their therapeutic effects and how they work.
In the midst of the tightest division race in the majors at the All-Star break, the first-place Orioles have benefited from their fair share of surprise performers in the midst of a 51-36 start.While there haven’t been any players to seemingly come out of nowhere as we’ve frequently seen in the Buck Showalter-Dan Duquette era, several have turned in performances few would have predicted at the start of the 2016 season. Their accomplishments are major reasons why Baltimore has been able to exceed expectations in the competitive American League East.Below are my five biggest individual surprises of the first half of the season with the biggest disappointments coming later this week:[poll id=”23″]Honorable mention: Joey Rickard5. Jonathan SchoopMaybe we shouldn’t be surprised about the 24-year-old’s first half after he hit .279 with 14 home runs and a .788 on-base plus slugging percentage in 321 plate appearances last season, but to see the second baseman take that production to the next level has been impressive.In addition to being one of only two Baltimore players to play in all 87 games before the All-Star break — a year removed from a knee injury that cost him almost three months last season — Schoop is hitting .304 with 14 homers, 23 doubles, and 52 RBIs. His .847 OPS ranks third on the club among qualified players, which is quite a leap after he produced a .598 mark as a rookie just two years ago.Schoop has likely benefited from some good fortune with his .348 batting average on balls in play, but he’s also shown some modest improvement in his free-swinging ways with a 3.8 percent walk rate that remains well below average but represents improvement from his 2.8 percent career mark entering the 2016 season. He hit safely in 20 of his 21 games before the break, posting a .414 average and 1.112 OPS over that stretch.4. Dylan BundyOne could argue that Bundy would be pitching in the minor leagues in a perfect world, but perhaps he’d be the ace of the Orioles rotation by now if such a sphere existed. Either way, the 23-year-old has overcome an array of injuries over the last few years to contribute meaningful innings out of the bullpen.Instead of serving as a pseudo Rule 5 pick who’s only in the majors because he’s out of minor-league options, Bundy is rapidly becoming an intriguing candidate to start in the second half despite the Orioles’ plans of trying to keep him healthy while massaging his development in a relief role. Since Showalter began regularly giving him at least three days of rest between outings, Bundy has pitched to a 1.42 ERA with 23 strikeouts and four walks in 19 innings of work.Bundy’s 3.08 season ERA is even more impressive when noting how opponents have a .371 BABIP against him, an average likely to normalize in the second half. His velocity has also spiked since receiving more regular rest as his average fastball velocity is 94.6 mph since May 31 and was just 93.2 before that.It remains to be seen what Bundy’s role will look like in the second half, but his continued health and reemergence as an important part of the club’s future are wonderful developments.3. Brad BrachHow many would have believed that Darren O’Day would miss nearly six weeks of action and the Orioles would still rank second in the AL and fourth in the majors with a 3.12 bullpen ERA at the break?With no disrespect intended to phenomenal All-Star closer Zach Britton, Brach is the biggest reason why as he’s built upon his first two good seasons in Baltimore with his own All-Star campaign that includes a microscopic 0.91 ERA and a strikeout rate of 10.6 per nine innings over 49 1/3 innings. The right-hander has allowed just one of 19 inherited runners to score and has held lefty bats to a .238 average and a .644 OPS, an important feat given the lack of a lefty specialist in the Baltimore bullpen.Right-handers are batting .080 with a .326 OPS against Brach in 97 plate appearances as he’s provided occasional length as well as serving as a strong replacement for O’Day, who hasn’t pitched since June 1. The 30-year-old ranks third in strikeouts (58) and second in innings pitched among AL relievers.According to Baseball Reference, Brach ranks third on the club with 2.6 wins above replacement, an illustration of how critical he’s been to the first-place Orioles.2. Mark TrumboExpecting Trumbo to help fill a void in the heart of the order that wasn’t addressed after the post-2014 departure of Nelson Cruz was realistic, but the right-handed slugger has instead been one of the best offensive players in the AL in 2016.Trumbo leads the majors with 28 homers, six more than he hit in 170 more plate appearances a season ago and only six shy of his career-high 34 in 2013. His 68 RBIs rank fourth in the majors, and his .288 average and .923 OPS would easily be career bests for the 30-year-old outfielder.While his strikeout and walk rates are in line with his career marks, Trumbo has swung at fewer pitches outside the strike zone and has shown more consistency than his streaky track record preceding his time in Baltimore. It would be unfair to expect him to hit 50 home runs, but Trumbo has done more than his expected share for one of the best lineups in baseball.And his offseason acquisition is arguably the best trade pulled off by Duquette during his time in Baltimore.1. Hyun Soo KimJust over three months ago, the Orioles were convinced that Kim wasn’t worthy of being in the big leagues, a reminder that we shouldn’t take spring training performance as gospel.Whether the organization was foolishly mistaken, he simply improved and adjusted to the majors, or it was a combination of both, the 28-year-old South Korean outfielder took advantage of sparse opportunities early and eventually earned a regular role against right-handed starters by late May. His .329 average and .410 on-base percentage lead the club among those with at least 170 plate appearances.Kim has provided a steady ability to get on base in a lineup known for its power and free-swinging ways. His 12.7 percent strikeout rate is the lowest on the club among regulars, and his 10.4 percent walk rate has been a helpful addition in the No. 2 spot in the order ahead of the likes of Manny Machado, Chris Davis, and Trumbo.His .370 BABIP suggests Kim will have a difficult time sustaining his current level of production, but he’s done more than enough to suggest he’s worthy of being a major leaguer and that the thoughts of sending him back to the Korean Baseball Organization in the spring were grossly premature.