Psychedelic drugs such as LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin and ketamine have been rediscovered by researchers in neuroscience and psychiatry. A recent review in the Journal of Psychopharmacology highlights the distinct therapeutic effects of psychedelics, as well as the current re-evaluation of their use in the treatment of addiction, anxiety in terminally ill patients, depression, cluster headaches and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).A psychedelic drug is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception. Since the discovery of LSD in 1943, psychedelic drugs have been of major scientific interest. Despite clinical psychedelic research coming to a standstill in the mid-1970s (due to regulatory restrictions), an increase in methodological quality standards, neurobiological method and neuroimaging, as well as interest in the interest of the neurosciences in subjective experience, has meant a re-emergence of interest.The review by Tomislav Majić (Charité University Medicine, Berlin), Timo Schmidt (Free University Berlin) and Jürgen Gallinat (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), looked at current clinical research and re-evaluated former and recent concepts of where and how psychedelic substances exert their therapeutic effects. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email Pinterest LinkedIn Share Key findings included that ketamine is effective in the treatment of substance addiction, both through the psychedelic experiences and it’s enhancing of personal meaning and spiritual significance. Ketamine has also been used to produce short-term anti-depressive effects in major depression and bipolar disorder, through its altering of perception (It has also been proposed as a treatment option for affective disorders based on its pharmacological effects).LSD has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol abuse when used in combination with therapy.Psilocybin, the main component of so-called magic mushrooms, has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety in cancer patients, not by reducing pain, but by inducing feelings of strengthened rapport and relationships with close relatives and friends. Recent research has also highlighted the therapeutic use of LSD and psilocybin in treating cluster headaches. Interestingly, it was reported that the therapeutic effects appear to be completely independent of the psychedelic experience.The review reported converging evidence suggesting that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the mechanism of these psychedelic drugs – the neurotransmitter serotonin is thought to play an important role in the brain relating to mood, anxiety and happiness.The findings of the review concluded that psychedelic drugs are unique in the sense that they: have neurochemical and pharmacodynamics effects (e.g. in the treatment of depression and possibly OCD); support various types of psychotherapy (e.g. in the treatment of terminal illness); can be used to treat headaches or other pain syndromes; and they often result in spiritual experiences through which they can assist in therapy (e.g. in the treatment of substance addiction). Furthermore, in contrast to traditional psychiatric drugs, they are only to be taken once or a few times.The review highlights the potential for psychedelic drugs to be used in clinical settings, although more research is required to develop a deeper understanding of their therapeutic effects and how they work.
AUSTRIA: National operator ÖBB has picked Siemens Mobility as the supplier of a fleet of inter-city rolling stock. Bids closed on June 29, and ÖBB said on July 20 that it had concluded its evaluation of the tenders, allowing the preferred bidder to be named. The deal is subject to a 10-day standstill period.Covering design and construction of eight trainsets for daytime services and 13 sets of overnight stock, the order is understood to represent the first drawdown worth €375m for what is expected to be a framework contract.The nine-car day trains are needed to replace EuroCity stock that ÖBB currently operates on services to and from Italy where updated fire regulations will prohibit their deployment from 2021. The overnight stock is destined to replace or augment the fleet that ÖBB currently uses on its Nightjet services. ÖBB’s existing overnight fleet includes 42 sleeping cars and 15 couchette cars operated by Deutsche Bahn until it withdrew City Night Line services in 2016.Tendering for the new trains was interrupted last year after a ruling by Austria’s Bundesverwaltungsgericht federal administrative court. This followed reports of a complaint by Siemens that changes had been made to the specification at a late stage in the process.Siemens is believed to have offered a derivative of the Viaggio design used in ÖBB’s Railjet trainsets with steel bodyshells, while rival bidder Bombardier reportedly proposed a vehicle with aluminium construction with some components sourced from China.
Related Topics Matt Medley Few college programs can boast the tradition, excellence, and history of the Ohio State Buckeyes.The Cleveland Cavaliers met up with the Buckeye football team on Monday and then took to the basketball court on Tuesday night.The end result was an incredible opportunity for Cavs fans in the heart of Buckeye nation to see their team in person.The experience also provided plenty of “Kodak moments,” bringing two dominant winning cultures from different sports together.1. Champion Head CoachesTyronn Lue and Urban Meyer both know a thing or two about winning.These young championship-contending Buckeyes could not ask for a better session to soak up information.2. O-(Brien) H-I-ONo caption needed.3. New Best FriendsHeisman, meet our friend Larry. #AllForOhio pic.twitter.com/6ti7Dyvs9U— Cleveland Cavaliers (@cavs) October 19, 2016Also self-explantatory.4. The KingNote the Scarlet shoes.5. They Got NextChris Worley and Marshon Lattimore, both graduates of Cleveland Glenville High School, share in Cleveland’s success and look to bring another trophy back to the Land. Matt Medley is co-editor at NEO Sports Insiders, covers the Cleveland Cavaliers, Cleveland Indians and high school sports in Northeast Ohio.Follow @MedleyHoops on Twitter for live updates from games.
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Nigeria’s men national football team has moved up 12 places, from 45th to 33rd, in the latest FIFA rankings for July 2019 after acquiring 1481 ranking points better than June’s 1433.The Super Eagles finished third in the recently concluded 2019 Africa Cup of Nations hosted by Egypt, after defeating Tunisia through a lone goal from Golden Boot Winner Odion Ighalo.AFCON 2019 Champions Algeria were the most improved side from Africa in the top 50 after managing to move up 28 places, from 68th to 40th in the rankings. Whereas, Tunisia, who missed out on the AFCON bronze medal to Nigeria, dropped four places from 25th to 29th, however, maintaining their second spot on the continent.Despite finishing in second in Egypt, Senegal moved up two places, from 22nd to 20th, retaining their top spot on the continent.Copa America Champions displaced 2018 FIFA World Cup winners France from the second spot, moving Les Bleus to third on the world ranking, while Belgium retains top spot. Whereas, Spain and Portugal dropped spots to fill the 9th and 6th spots respectively, with Argentina occupying 10th position.Mexico, who won a record eighth Gold Cup title, moved up six places, from 18th to 12th, while runners up the USA moved eight places to occupy the 22nd spot.Related