A research team from Canada yesterday reported what they say is a missing piece of the puzzle in the understanding of how lifetime exposure to flu viruses affects the immune system, a process called “antigenic imprinting.”Scientists already know that, in many instances, exposure to similar viruses appears to boost protection against related strains. However, a research team based at McMaster University and the University of Montreal found more evidence that exposure to a pandemic strain can make people more susceptible to the next pandemic strain—if the viruses are greatly different from each other. The group described its findings in the latest issue of mBio.Earlier studies had raised the issue about increased susceptibility regarding exposure to successive pandemic strains, citing two earlier examples. People born during the 1890 H3 pandemic had the highest excess death levels during the 1918 H1N1 pandemic, and a peak in deaths was seen in the 1968 H3N2 pandemic in people were born around the time of the 1918 pandemic.To see if the same dynamic was in play during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, researchers reviewed monthly death and flu circulation data from October 1997 to July 2014 in the United States and Mexico, examining mortality and year of birth during the pandemic and during a resurgence of the virus from 2013 to 2014.Effect on those born during H2N2 pandemicFor the 2009 H1N1 pandemic season, the investigators found peaks in death rates in people from both countries who were 52 years old, corresponding with a birth year of 1957, when the H2N2 “Asian” flu pandemic occurred.The team said the vulnerability that they and others have noted in subsequent pandemics marks an unappreciated risk factor and has all the markings of a cohort effect, showing the value of studying flu deaths by individual birth year instead of very large age-groups.The findings suggest that increased pandemic deaths in people primed in early life by viruses that have little to no antigenic overlap with new pandemic or seasonal viruses might result in responses that increase the pathogenicity of the disease, possibly compromising lung function, the group wrote.Pandemic preparedness implicationsThe new findings add more weight to calls for more broadly protective universal flu vaccines that have the capacity to protect against both seasonal and pandemic strains, the group wrote.Matthew Miller, PhD, the study’s senior author and assistant professor of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at McMaster, said in a press release from the university, “Reported situations in which previous influenza virus exposures have enhanced susceptibility are rare and poorly understood.””This study’s results have important implications for pandemic risk assessment and should inform laboratory studies aimed at uncovering what’s responsible for this effect.”See also:Jan 16 mBio studyJan 16 McMaster University press release
Juvic Pangunsan raises his hands after winning the ICTSI Negros Occidental Classic on Saturday at the Negros Occidental Golf and Country Club course. ICTSI NEGRENSE Juvic Pangunsan showed poise and class in the playoff feet to clinch the victory in the ICTSI Negros Occidental Classic on Saturday at the Negros Occidental Golf and Country Club course.Dragged into a playoff by Jobim Carlos, Pagunsan struck a solid wedge shot from 60 yards to within 5 feet on the second extra hole and made the putt. He then watched Carlos muff his own birdie bid to clinch the crown.Pangunsan, a native of Murcia, Negros Occidental, closed out the three-day event with a 67 for a nine-under 271 total, which Carlos matched with a 68 on a birdie-par-birdie windup.“It was an inspiring win. That was my plan and because I made a great approach from 60 yards, it put more pressure on Jobim,” said Pagunsan, who came from an ACL injury. Pangunsan seemed headed to victory in regulation after shaking off Korean Kim Joo Hyung early and then going 2-up over Carlos with a clutch birdie on No. 14 coupled with Carlos’ bogey on the next.But Carlos refused to give up as he came through with that fiery windup to stun Pagunsan. But Pagunsan opted for a rather conservative play off the No. 1 tee, hacking out a superb approach shot then banging in the pressure-packed, title-clinching birdie putt.Jhonnel Ababa finished on third place at 273 after a 67, Zanieboy Gialon was on fourth with a 70 for fourth at 275 while the 16-year-old Kim limped with a three-over 73 and dropped to fifth at 277.Anthony Fernando rallied with a 67 to tie for sixth with American Pete Vilairatana and Elmer Salvador, who both carded 70s, and Elmer Salvador, who stumbled with a 71, at 278./PN
The problem for the Italian defender is that Manchester United, or most likely José Mourinho, don’t want him to move back to his home country for lack of better options in the squad at his role.Featured for just the third time this season against Arsenal, the defender doesn’t want to stay in this situation any longer, and that’s why he’s planning on forcing an exit.Corriere dello Sport are the ones reporting the news, claiming the defender will try his best to get a move in January, with the likes of Roma and Lazio allegedly interested, but if he can’t do that, he will ‘try to free himself at the end of the season’.Embed from Getty ImagesAs things stand, his deal is expected to run out in June 2019, meaning he’d be available to negotiate with other clubs next month, but Manchester United do have the option to extend his contract by an extra year if they so wish.It remains to be seen if they do go through with that, or if they agree to sell him in January, knowing he doesn’t want to be there, therefore allowing them to recoup some money from their initial expenditure back in 2015.by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksTrending TodayForge of Empires – Free Online GameBuild a City, Trade With Your Neighbors, Play With Your FriendsForge of Empires – Free Online GameUndoRaid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadEven Non-Gamers Are Obsessed With This RPG Game (It’s Worth Installing!)Raid: Shadow Legends | Free DownloadUndoCNBC InternationalHere’s How Big Businesses in Singapore Are Managing the Impact of COVID-19.CNBC InternationalUndoDating.comThe Most Handsome Guys In Hong Kong On This Dating SiteDating.comUndo熱門話題小心會瘦過快…網友推爆:「真的瘦的超誇張!」熱門話題UndoCoworking Space | Search AdsThe cost of shared office in Hong Kong might surprise youCoworking Space | Search AdsUndoKeto减肥1個簡單的妙招一夜「融化」腹部贅肉！睡前，空腹吃Keto减肥UndoCNN with DBS BankWhat Banks Changed To Help SMEs During Covid-19CNN with DBS BankUndoHero WarsGetting this Treasure is impossible! Prove us wrong!Hero WarsUndo Matteo Darmian wants to return to Italy, we all know this because he’s made that very clear.