Psychedelic drugs such as LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), psilocybin and ketamine have been rediscovered by researchers in neuroscience and psychiatry. A recent review in the Journal of Psychopharmacology highlights the distinct therapeutic effects of psychedelics, as well as the current re-evaluation of their use in the treatment of addiction, anxiety in terminally ill patients, depression, cluster headaches and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).A psychedelic drug is a psychoactive drug whose primary action is to alter cognition and perception. Since the discovery of LSD in 1943, psychedelic drugs have been of major scientific interest. Despite clinical psychedelic research coming to a standstill in the mid-1970s (due to regulatory restrictions), an increase in methodological quality standards, neurobiological method and neuroimaging, as well as interest in the interest of the neurosciences in subjective experience, has meant a re-emergence of interest.The review by Tomislav Majić (Charité University Medicine, Berlin), Timo Schmidt (Free University Berlin) and Jürgen Gallinat (University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf), looked at current clinical research and re-evaluated former and recent concepts of where and how psychedelic substances exert their therapeutic effects. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Email Pinterest LinkedIn Share Key findings included that ketamine is effective in the treatment of substance addiction, both through the psychedelic experiences and it’s enhancing of personal meaning and spiritual significance. Ketamine has also been used to produce short-term anti-depressive effects in major depression and bipolar disorder, through its altering of perception (It has also been proposed as a treatment option for affective disorders based on its pharmacological effects).LSD has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of alcohol abuse when used in combination with therapy.Psilocybin, the main component of so-called magic mushrooms, has been recently shown to be effective in the treatment of anxiety in cancer patients, not by reducing pain, but by inducing feelings of strengthened rapport and relationships with close relatives and friends. Recent research has also highlighted the therapeutic use of LSD and psilocybin in treating cluster headaches. Interestingly, it was reported that the therapeutic effects appear to be completely independent of the psychedelic experience.The review reported converging evidence suggesting that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a key role in the mechanism of these psychedelic drugs – the neurotransmitter serotonin is thought to play an important role in the brain relating to mood, anxiety and happiness.The findings of the review concluded that psychedelic drugs are unique in the sense that they: have neurochemical and pharmacodynamics effects (e.g. in the treatment of depression and possibly OCD); support various types of psychotherapy (e.g. in the treatment of terminal illness); can be used to treat headaches or other pain syndromes; and they often result in spiritual experiences through which they can assist in therapy (e.g. in the treatment of substance addiction). Furthermore, in contrast to traditional psychiatric drugs, they are only to be taken once or a few times.The review highlights the potential for psychedelic drugs to be used in clinical settings, although more research is required to develop a deeper understanding of their therapeutic effects and how they work.
Boxer Robbie Pattinson who escaped death by just 1MM after being stabbed in face by kitchen knife set for ring return
Rebekah Vardy scores an impressive penalty in six-inch heels BOXER Robbie Pattinson is set to make his return to the ring – just one year after he was stabbed in the face with a kitchen knife.The 21-year-old came within just one millimetre of death when he was savagely attacked by a drug-fuelled thug last April.The kitchen knife was wedged into the talented young boxer’s skullCredit: SWNS:South West News ServiceRobbie Pattinson is set to make his return to the ring this weekendCredit: SWNS:South West News ServiceA sickening X-ray image shows the weapon buried deep into Pattinson’s face – just below his left eye.The 21-year-old was told by doctors that if the six inch blade had penetrated just a millimetre more it would have severed a major artery and cost him his life.He suffered the injury less than a year ago, but has incredibly recovered so well that he is preparing for the biggest title bout of his career.Just two days after waking from a coma, the talented boxer from Wigton, Cumbria, was back in the gym looking ahead to his next fight.His first bout back, an amateur clash for a regional belt, is set to take place this weekend.He said: “It’s a big deal, especially after what happened last year, you’ve got to bounce back or you don’t.”Robbie was on a night out in April with his girlfriend when he was brutally attacked by Scott Topping – who has since been jailed for attempted murder.A court heard when the situation escalated the amateur athlete was forced to throw defensive punches, which sent Topping crashing to the ground.The pair then ran into each other again a short time later and Topping, “humiliated” and “desperate for revenge”, plunged a knife into Robbie’s face.Following a trial at Carlisle Crown Court last year Topping, described by the judge as “a very dangerous man”, was found guilty of attempted murder and jailed for life.Robbie, who has fully recovered, claimed he remembers everything that happened the night he was attacked, including waking up in the hospital three days later.Robbie Pattinson returned to the gym two days after waking up from a comaCredit: SWNS:South West News ServiceHe added: “I was very weak, I’d lost nearly half my blood. As soon as I woke up the doctors were telling us they couldn’t believe I was still alive. I just felt lucky really, it’s all you can think.” Robbie insisted he was “surprised” at how quickly he recovered and has insisted he has “tried not to dwell” on what happened.He said: “I was more or less back into it straight away.“I just felt that if I didn’t come back, get it over and done with, what happened would keep nagging on me.”Robbie has been supported along the way by longtime coach Andi Crossman, who describes his fighter as a “warrior” and will be in his corner this weekend.Remembering the call he received on April 12 with news of the attack, Andi said it was as if his “world had collapsed”.He added: “I hated seeing him like that but if there was anybody I knew was gonna pull out of it, it was him. He’s one of the hardest lads I know.”But even Andi was surprised when Robbie walked into Wigton Amateur Boxing Club five days after the attack, although he was still in the early stages of recovery.Robbie said: “I was left with dizziness all the time, bad heads.“I couldn’t eat because the knife went through my throat. I still can’t feel the left side of my mouth.“The surgeon said that feeling might come back, but it maybe won’t. It could take years.”The amateur boxer escaped death by just one millimetreCredit: SWNS:South West News ServiceAfter some weeks doctors gave Robbie the all clear to start boxing again but Andi said they took it “step by step” to begin with and he even wore an extra safe head guard.The coach proved he is confident about his fighter’s chance this weekend as he said: “You don’t get a harder fight than beating death”.“As long as he goes out there and gives me his best, and comes out alright, that will do for me.”The young boxer from Cumbria was on a night out when the horrific attack took placeCredit: SWNS:South West News ServiceBoxer Danny Garcia bitten by Ivan Redkach as fans stunned by Ukrainian sinking teeth into American’s shoulder Real or Fake? Shark Attacks Helicopter People Slammed By Massive Waves 4 10 INCREDIBLE Space Launch Failures! 8 MOST DANGEROUS RAINS of All Time | TOP 10 INTERESTING Travel Diary // Vietnam 2017 Top 5 Best Budget Hotels In Dubai under AED 400 a night. What’s This “Trick” Called? Comment Down Below!! Source: Boxing – thesun.co.uk
Twitter has become the traveller’s megaphone. The modern day traveller uses Twitter to share information and obtain advice, according to a new research study.Allianz Global Assistance launched the first global observatory for Twitter usage and requests, entitled #HELPME, analysing a sample of more than 25,000 tweets collected in March 2013.Typical tourist advice and assistance accounted for 38 percent of all tweets, while 26 percent posted tweets to help with trip logistics; such as selecting a hotel room and calculating travel costs.One third of all tweets directly addressed tourism and/or travel professionals.The study also revealed that 46 percent of tweets sent to a specific individual or company received a valid response.“The development of these [social] media channels has led to new usages: new ways to travel, new interactions, new uses for smartphones, new expectations, new rhythms,” Allianz Global Assistance president and chief executive Rémi Grenier said.“The #HELPME observatory highlights the new behaviours of certain avant-garde travellers who are probably the precursors of tomorrow’s mainstream lifestyles.”Ranking of most frequently asked Twitter questions:1. Find an activity.2. Ask for advice when organising a trip.3. How do I get reimbursed for an airline ticket?4. Find directions.5. Find a place to sleep.6. Exchange rate.7. What to do tonight?8. Find a hotel.9. Choose a destination for the next trip.10. The eternal visa problem.Source = ETB News: P.T.